Citizenship Education in a Time of Transitions and Insurrection

US Capitol Building
By Bill Bliss

January 2021 was already going to be a time of transitions for our programs that prepare immigrants to become naturalized citizens. In addition to updating the answers to some civics test questions to reflect recent election results, we need to prepare for a transition to a new version of the civics test that poses challenges for our students and programs. And then came the January 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol, which demonstrated to many of our students the precariousness of the system of government they are learning about and the sudden fragility of some of the basic facts they need to know for the test, including the system of checks and balances among three branches of government, and the rules of presidential succession.

The Transitions: A New Administration and a New Civics Test

Every U.S. election can result in changes in answers to some of the civics questions for naturalization, which ask students to name the President, the Vice President, the Governor of their state, their Representative in Congress, the Speaker of the House, and one of their state’s U.S. Senators. The U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) website offers a link with updates for the federal offices. For example, after the inauguration on January 20, the site will let us know the multiple ways students can name the new President, which will likely include Joseph R. Biden, Jr, Joseph Biden, Joe Biden, and possibly just Biden. (A link to the USCIS test update page is here.)

The greater transition challenge this year is the major revision of the civics test of U.S. history and government knowledge. The test is significantly more difficult and lengthier than the current version, which requires applicants to answer correctly six out of ten questions from an item pool of 100 possible questions. The new test requires applicants to answer correctly 12 out of 20 questions from an item pool of 128 possible questions. Many of the new questions are more difficult, use more complicated vocabulary, or are provoking controversy regarding their content. In addition, while the old test stops as soon as applicants answer six questions correctly, the new test requires applicants to answer all 20 questions regardless of whether they have already answered 12 correctly. This will potentially increase the amount of time that USCIS officers need to administer the civics portion of the exam and thereby result in longer and fewer interviews per day, further exacerbating the agency’s backlog in processing citizenship applications.

Given these concerns, many education programs, advocacy organizations, and others have submitted comments to USCIS calling for the new test to be rescinded or delayed until it can be further reviewed by the new administration. (My recent article describing issues with the new test is available here.) As of this writing, there has been no change in the policy, and the new test is required for all students whose citizenship application filing dates are December 1, 2020, and after. Students who filed prior to that date will take the old test. So unless there is a policy change, our citizenship education programs currently need to prepare students for two different sets of civics questions depending on their application dates. And since USCIS regional offices vary widely in their appointment backlogs, programs around the country will experience different percentages of students needing to prepare for the old and new test versions.

Here are some resources that show the comparison between the old and new sets of civics test questions:

A listing of the old test questions (with a comparison to the new questions) is available here.

A listing of the new test questions (with a comparison to the old questions) is available here.

A Voices of Freedom unit-by-unit integration of the old and new test questions is available here.

If you would like to provide comments or suggested edits to USCIS regarding any of the new test questions, you can send them to naturalizationtestrevision2019@uscis.dhs.gov.

The Insurrection

The attack on the Capitol on January 6 has had a profound impact on many of our immigrant students, whose reactions have ranged from shock and fear that an insurrection could occur in the United States, to a wary familiarity with such events from their experiences in their countries of origin. For many students in our civics classes, the principles of democracy and the stability of the government institutions they are studying are beacons of hope lighting their pathway to citizenship. Many cite the rights and responsibilities of citizenship as the fulfillment of a dream as they prepare to take the oath of allegiance at their naturalization ceremonies.

But many know too well from their home countries how fragile government institutions and people’s rights can be. Ironically, while one of the most important aspects of attaining citizenship is for our students to eventually be able to have relatives join them in the U.S. through family immigration, many students were hearing from those family members after the events at the Capitol to check on their safety and the stability of the United States.

When considering these events through the eyes of our students, it is also important to acknowledge that many of them have experienced the effects of growing anti-immigrant sentiment over the past few years, and many are in communities that have been disproportionately impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting recession. These students’ motivations for acquiring citizenship therefore also may include the goal of increasing their safety and acceptance in the country as well as safeguarding their lives and livelihoods.

The challenges our students may be facing coupled with uncertainty surrounding the recent events may result in their having lots of questions, concerns, and a need to share during instructional time. Whether you are offering citizenship instruction or general English language instruction, and whether you are currently meeting with students remotely or in a classroom, here are links to some resources you may find useful for incorporating lessons or conversations about the U.S. Capitol insurrection:

“What Happened During the Insurrection at the US Capitol and Why?” – a resource from Facing History and Ourselves, is available here.

“Three ways to teach the insurrection at the U.S. Capitol” – a lesson plan with videos from the PBS Newshour, is available here.

“Lesson from an Insurrection” – interviews with 15 instructors about how they and their students have responded to the events, from the education news site The 74, is available here.

A “January 6, 2021 Resource Guide” – from the New York City Department of Education, is available here.

I am currently preparing an article on how immigrant students view the January 6 attack and invite you to share any writing about this by your students. If a student would like to have her or his photo included and give permission, please send any submissions to: bill.bliss@languageandcommunication.org.

Considering the New Citizenship Exam

Bill Bliss
By Bill Bliss

Considering the New Citizenship Exam

Statue of Liberty

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) recently announced a significant revision of the civics test that immigrants take in order to become naturalized citizens. The revised version will be required for all applicants with a filing receipt date of December 1, 2020, and after. The reading, writing, and speaking portions of the test remain the same, but the civics test of U.S. history and government knowledge is substantially changed, lengthier, and arguably more difficult.

New test item content:  A little more difficult

The content of the new civics exam is a combination of current questions (some exactly the same; some modified) and new questions related to U.S. history and government. (The current geography questions have been eliminated.) The new questions and the approved answers are somewhat more challenging than in the current test, but they seem fairly reasonable. An anonymous panel of educators advised on the creation of the items, and this participation probably helped provide a reality-check on the appropriateness of topics and language.

There are some content improvements that citizenship educators will probably welcome. New questions ask about the parts of the executive and judicial branches and the powers of the U.S. Congress and the President. The Supreme Court gets new questions about the number of justices needed to decide a case, the length of time justices serve, and the reason for lifetime appointments. (A lot of questions about the court, but certainly timely.) Woodrow Wilson has departed the test and some key historical figures have joined, including questions about Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton. And a question about Susan B. Anthony is now expanded to invite students to learn about additional leaders of the women’s rights movement in the 1800s, including Sojourner Truth, Harriet Tubman, and others.

A few old questions have become a little more challenging. Instead of naming one promise contained in the Oath of Allegiance, applicants need to name two. Instead of naming two rights of everyone living in the U.S., applicants need to name three. And instead of naming three of the original 13 states, they need to name five.

Some test items seem more difficult than they actually are due to all the alternative acceptable answers. These alternatives might offer great enrichment for students at an advanced level, but most students will want to stick with the more straightforward answers. For example, a new question about documents that influenced the U.S. Constitution can be answered with the Virginia Declaration of Rights or the Iroquois Great Law of Peace. No worries, though, since the easy answer is the Declaration of Independence. And new questions about events of the Revolutionary War and Civil War include options to answer with the names of key battles, from Yorktown and Saratoga to Vicksburg and Antietam. Most students will probably want to opt for easier answers, such as the Declaration of Independence or the Emancipation Proclamation (unless they aspire to be Jeopardy contestants some day).

At least one content change should be controversial: The required answer to an existing question about who U.S. senators represent has been changed from “all people of the state” to “citizens in their state”. This isn’t correct. Given the current administration’s effort to not count all residents in this year’s census regardless of their legal status, it is reasonable to ask if this “error” is motivated by politics.

To help citizenship educators understand the civics test changes, I’ll share here the two comparison documents I always create when preparing a new edition of my citizenship course:

You can download the 2008 questions (with a comparison to the new 2020 questions) here.

You can download the new 2020 questions (with a comparison to the 2008 questions) here.

New test length and duration:  The greater challenge

The current 2008 version of the civics test requires applicants to answer up to 10 questions from a list of 100 potential questions and answers, and they need to correctly answer six of them. In the new 2020 version, 20 questions will be asked from a list of 128 possible questions and answers, and applicants need to correctly answer 12. (For applicants who qualify by age and length of permanent resident status for the “65/20” special consideration, ten questions will be asked from a list of 20, and six correct answers will be required.)

In actuality, while the new civics test is more than double in length, it could triple in duration for many applicants. In the current version, as soon as the applicant answers six of the possible ten questions correctly, the test is ended. However, in the new version, applicants will need to answer all 20 questions regardless of whether they have already answered 12 correctly. This will potentially triple the amount of time that USCIS officers need to administer the civics portion of the exam to some applicants – resulting in the possibility of longer and fewer interviews per day for USCIS officers, further exacerbating the agency’s backlog in processing citizenship applications.

Since the civics knowledge requirements will increase as applicants prepare to answer a larger set of potential questions, the goal of refreshing the test and improving its meaningfulness will have been achieved. Doubling the civics test’s length and potentially tripling its duration places an unnecessary burden on the applicant, the officer, and the naturalization process.

Some concerns and an opportunity for policy input

The current 2008 exam was developed with a significant amount of pilot testing, stakeholder input, item revision, and field-testing. A guiding principle was to assure that the test was standardized, fair, and appropriate, without being more difficult or decreasing the pass rate. There was also a good amount of transparency in that development process. For the 2020 changes, comparatively less information has been made public. Perhaps most important, it is unclear to what extent adequate field-testing has occurred in actual USCIS settings to assure that the new civics test is fair, reliable, and not increasing the incidence of failure. Presumably, the shutdown of agency offices earlier this year due to the pandemic and the ensuing backlog had some impact on the piloting. More technical information from USCIS about the field-testing would be helpful.

Although the new civics test is scheduled to be in effect for all new applicants as of December 1, the comment period for submission of feedback to USCIS about the policy change has been extended to December 14. So there is time for stakeholders to offer comments, suggestions, and questions. This will be valuable input, whether immediately for the current administration, or eventually when the new administration takes office.

Read the USCIS Policy Alert about the new civics test.

Read the USCIS news release about the test.

Access information about how to submit feedback to USCIS regarding the policy change. (deadline is December 14, 2020)

For any comments or questions, you can reach me at: bill.bliss@languageandcommunication.org

Voices of Freedom resources:

Voices of Freedom cover

A new training video includes a segment on remote instruction strategies using Zoom and Google Meet (segment begins at 25:48).

A digital flipbook version of the course with complete audio can be ordered here.

New Citizens, New Voters

Bill Bliss
By Bill Bliss

Did you know that . . .

10 percent of the total U.S. electorate consists of naturalized citizens?

Before COVID-19, up to 860,000 new Americans had been expected to take their oath of citizenship and be eligible to vote this year?

Up to half that number may not be able to vote due to months-long pandemic shutdowns at USCIS field offices, which exacerbated years of growing delays in citizenship processing?*

Since field offices reopened on June 4, citizenship oath ceremonies have resumed at a slower rate than usual through a variety of workarounds, including smaller indoor gatherings that observe social distancing measures, outdoor ceremonies, and even drive-through events sponsored by local governments. However, the months of postponed naturalization interviews have severely reduced the number of applicants who have completed the process and are ready to take the oath in time to register to vote.

The delays have stymied the efforts of the League of Women Voters and other organizations throughout the country to register as many new citizens as possible in time to vote in the upcoming election. For some states, voter registration deadlines have passed. But many states still have upcoming registration deadlines or allow simultaneous registration and voting on Election Day. You can find a useful state-by-state guide to voting deadlines and procedures here.

If you have current or former citizenship students who are eligible, encourage them to register to vote!

Our students cite being able to vote as one of their most important motivations for becoming citizens. And our instruction emphasizes this as one of citizens’ key rights and responsibilities. In celebration of this election season, here are complimentary lessons from the Voices of Freedom course that you can use with your students on the topics of rights, responsibilities, and civic participation, including elections.

If you are currently offering your citizenship instruction remotely or through a hybrid model due to the pandemic, here’s a new training video for Voices of Freedom that includes a segment on remote instruction strategies using Zoom and Google Meet.  (That segment begins at 25:48.)

And as a service to programs operating remotely, an electronic version of the course is also available here––a useful resource for screensharing and as an alternative to the print edition of the student book.

(*Information about delays in citizenship processing are available at these sites:  FiveThirtyEight, Boundless, and the Migration Policy Institute.)


To learn more about the Voices of Freedom course and its components, and for ordering information, please visit our digital catalog here.

Tax Time!

Bill Bliss Photo 2014Bill Bliss

Here are three quotes appropriate for the month of April:
“In this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes.”
“Why did the colonists fight the British?  Because of high taxes – taxation without representation.”
“When is the last day you can send in federal income tax forms?  April 15.”

The first was penned by Benjamin Franklin in 1789. The second and third are among the 100 official questions and answers on the US citizenship exam.

Tax Tips

Filling out tax forms always seems to occupy too much time – and often it’s our evening time in April that we might otherwise be devoting to lesson preparation, correcting student homework, or other professional work. So in the spirit of helping you get through tax season, here are some tips to ease your lesson planning on those days you’re slogging through your 1040 form. I hope you find these helpful whether you are preparing students for the citizenship exam or you are incorporating civics topics into general EL/Civics instruction. Continue reading